孙膑,开封天气预报15天,桂鱼的做法-迈向2010,世界杯年份,我们为足球喝彩

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摘要: 澳大利亚能给世界什么启发...

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几十年来兴旺国家面对种种扎手的问题使之头疼不已。怎样处理政府巨额公债、居民收入增速缓慢、移民问题诸类问题?危机面前,澳大利亚别出心裁,给出推举链了不一样的答案。

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Aussie rules

澳式规矩

What the world can learn from Australia

澳大利亚能给国际什么启示

It is perhaps the most successful rich economy

澳大利亚或许是最成功的兴旺经济体

Print edition | Lea孙膑,开封气候预报15天,桂鱼的做法-迈向2010,国际杯年份,咱们为足球喝彩ders Oct 27th 2018

What is the biggest problem facing America? Or Japan? Or Britain? Or Fr孙膑,开封气候预报15天,桂鱼的做法-迈向2010,国际杯年份,咱们为足球喝彩ance? Opinions vary, naturally, but some worries crop up again and agai狂峰战豪n. Those of a materialist bent point to decades of slow growth in median incomes, which has bred disillusion and anger among working people. Fiscal hawks decry huge public debts, destined to grow even vaster as ageing populations rack up ever bigger bills for health care and pensions. Then there is immigration, which has prompted a furious populist backlash in the United States and all over Europe. That hints at what, for many, is the most alarming trend of all: the lack of any semblance of a political consensus about how to handle these swelling crises.

美国,日本,英国或是法国面对的最棘戚世钦手的问题是什么?对此,人们天然议论纷纷,但其间的某些问题会重复冒头。实利主义指出,几十年来大众收入增速缓慢,劳动人民早已灰心丧气、愤激不已。财务强硬派斥责道,跟着人口老龄化,医保和养老金的开销越来越大,巨额公债注定越积越多。接着是移民问题,早早就在美国和全欧引起了民粹主义的激烈抵抗。对许多人来说,这暗示着形势将变得极点严峻:在不断胀大的多种危机面前,好像政治圈里还未达到任何一致。

Rising incomes, low public debt, an affordable welfare state, popular support for mass immigration and a broad consensus on the policies underpinning these things—that is a distant dream in most rich countries. Many Western politicians could scarcely imagine a place that combined them all. Happily, they do not have to, because such a country alr面瘫老公早上好eady exists: Australia.

要想让收入不断添加,公债数额变小,福利国家不再成为担负,大众支撑大规模移民,并且在处理以上种种问题的方针上达到广泛一致,大多数兴旺国家标明这不啻于春秋大梦。许多西方政客乃至幻想不出来这样一块能免于以上问题的净土。不过政客倒不必费尽心机幻想了,由于天降福音,实际中早有这样的国度,那就是——澳大利亚。

Perhaps because it is far away from everywhere, or has only 25m inhabitants, or is seen mainly as a habitat for cuddly marsupials, it attracts relatively little attention. But its economy is arguably the most successful in the rich world. It has been growing for 27 years without a recession—a record for a developed country. 有一种爱叫做甩手吉他谱Its cumulative growth over that period is almost three times what Germany has managed. The median income has rise盲约丁凯n four times faster than in America. Public debt, at 41% of gdp, is less than half Britain’s.

相对而言,澳大利亚不怎样引人注意,或许是它地理位置偏僻,或许是它居民只要2500万,或许是一说起它,人们首要到的是心爱的袋鼠的栖息地。但毫无疑问,澳大利亚的经济能够说是兴旺国家中最成功的。其经济接连添加了27年,从未阑珊——这但是兴旺国家的记载。在此期间,其经济累计添加简直是德国的三倍。民众收入的增速是美国的四倍。公债占GDP的41%,比英国的一半还少。

Luck has had a hand in these feats, to be sure. Australia is blessed with lots of iron ore and natural gas, and is relatively close to China, which hoovers 孙膑,开封气候预报15天,桂鱼的做法-迈向2010,国际杯年份,咱们为足球喝彩up such things. But sound policymaking has helped, too. After the last recession, in 1991, the government of the day reformed the health-care and pensions systems, requiring the middle class to pay more of its own way. The result is that Australia’s government spends just half the OECD average on pensions as a share of gdp—and the gap will only widen in the years ahead.

能够必定,这些耀眼成果有命运的成分。澳大利亚坐拥丰厚的铁矿石和天然气资源,它间隔我国这个资源耗费大国相对较近。但成果的达到也少不了正确的方针。1991年发生了距今最近的一次经济阑珊,之后,政府变革了医疗和养老金准则,添加了中产阶级医疗养老的自付数额。其结果是,澳大利亚政府在养老金方面的开销仅为经合安排成员国平均水平的一半,而在未来几年内,这一距离在只会变大。

Even more remarkable is Australia’s enthusiasm for immigration. Some 29% of its inhabitants were born in another country—twice the proportion in the United States. Half of Australians are either immigrants themselves or children of immigrants. And the biggest source of immigrants is Asia, which i初中女生图片s fast changing the country’s racial mix. Compare that with America or Britain or Italy, where far smaller inflows have ge家必洁拖把nerated hostility among a big portion of the electorate—or Japan, where allowing foreigners to settle in any numbers is a political taboo. In Australia both main parties argue that admittingpkhex运用教程 lots of skilled migrants is essential to the health of the economy.

更有目共睹的是澳大利亚对移民的热心。其居民出生地在境外的占比约29%,是美国的两倍。澳大利亚居民中有一半要么是移民,要么是移民的子孙。澳大利亚移民中来自亚洲的最多,亚裔正在敏捷改动澳大利亚的人种。相比之下,美国、英国或意大利接收的移民要少得多,大部分大众却敌视移民,在推举中予以对立;乃至在日本,承受移民成了一个政治忌讳。但在澳大利亚,两大政党都以为接收许多移民人才对澳经济的健康发展至关重要。

These achievements are not without their flaws. The private investment funds through which Australians are obliged to save for their retirement have been charging excessive fees, leaving pensioners poorer than they should be. And as welcoming as Australia is to immigrants arriving through normal channels, it treats those who try to come by boat without the proper paperwork with unnecessary severity, packing them off to remote islands in the Pacific where even legitimate refugees have been left to rot for years.

当然,这些成果并非完美无瑕。澳大利亚强制人们购买私家出资基金作为养老金,但多年来这些养老基金收费一向过高,使得退休的人的钱包比本来更瘪。虽然澳大利亚欢迎经过正常途径进入的移民,但它对那些企图偷渡来的人却会采纳严苛的赏罚,它会把他们丢到太平洋上偏僻的岛屿,即便是合法难民,也会任之在那里自生自灭几年。

Moreover, there are reforms that Australia should be undertaking and is not. Aboriginal Australians suffer from enormous disadvantages, which a succession of governments has barely dented. Global warming is clearly causing grave damage—droughts have become more frequent and more severe, among other dism战将杨成武al consequences—yet Australia has done almost nothing to curb its emissions of greenhouse ga95187是哪里电话孙膑,开封气候预报15天,桂鱼的做法-迈向2010,国际杯年份,咱们为足球喝彩ses.

除上所述,澳大利亚还在一系列理应推广的变革上置之不理。澳大利亚的土著居民面对不少严峻应战,但连着几届政府简直都没有给予援手。全球变暖形成的严峻破坏清楚明了,干旱气候频繁,状况更加严峻,除此之外糟糕的状况不乏其人,但即便这样澳大利亚也简直没有采纳任何办法来约束其温室气体的排放。

Nonetheless, Australia’s example shows that reforms considered impossible elsewhere are perfectly achievable. Democrats in America assail most proposals to restrain the rising costs of public pensions or health care as tantamount to throwing grannies off a cliff; in Australia it was the left that pioneered such policies. The Labor Party sold obligatory private pensions to unions as an increase in benefits, since it is technically employers who are required to make regu陈积山lar payments into investment funds on their workers’ behalf. The party also made sure to retain a basic public pension, which is paid only to those who have not managed to build up adequate personal savings.

红人红人

虽然如此,澳大利亚这个比如标明,外人以为天方夜谭的变革彻底是能够完成的。美国民主党大力打击约束公共养老金或医保上涨的提议,能够说彻底弃白叟于不管;在澳大利亚,首推这种方针的是左派人士。依照规则,雇主需求替职工给他们定时买稳妥,工党借此向各个单位素然女装官方旗舰店强制售卖私家养老稳妥来添加利益。工党还要保证根本的谭润波长沙公共养老金,但只会给那些前半生没攒下多少钱的人。

By the same token, it is quite possible to maintain popular support for mass immigration, even from culturally dissimilar places. But it is essential to give voters the sense孙膑,开封气候预报15天,桂鱼的做法-迈向2010,国际杯年份,咱们为足球喝彩 that their borders are properly policed and that there is no free-for-all. Again, bipartisanship is important. It was a right-wing government that first allo无辜者逃遁wed immigration from Asia on a big scale, admitting lots of refugees from Vietnam in the 1970s.

相同的,澳大利亚证明让民众支撑大规模移民也是可行的,即便移民的文化背景千差万别。不过,最重要的是要让选民知道不同集体都能得到方针的有用维护,一起谁也不能坐收渔利。在此,两党协作再次凸显了重要性。上世纪70年代,右翼政府首肯亚洲移民大批入境,其间包含许多越南难民。

Australia’s political system rewards centrism. All eligible citizens must vote, by law, and those who might not bother to turn out otherwise tend to plump for mainstream parties. There is no need to rally supporters to the polls by pandering to their prejudices. Since everyone has to show up, politicians focus instead on winning over thetvs3在线直播 wavering middle. The system of preferential voting, whereby Australians rank candidates in order of choice, rather than picking just one, also exerts a moderating influence.

澳大利亚的政治体制喜爱中心道路。依据法律规则,一切契合条件的公民都必须参加投票,不过那些懒得参加投票的人可能会挑选倾向于干流政党。这样一来,就没必要经过投合支撑者的偏好,将其团结起来为参选人投票。已然每个公民都必须投票,“墙头草”中心派的支撑就成了政客重视的焦点。此外,澳大利亚优先级投票的准则使竞选不再有你没我,人们不再只挑一名提名人,而是依照优先级将提名人排序。

Killing the goose

饮鸠止渴

The irony is that, just as the benefits of this set-up are becoming so obvious, Australians appear to be growing disenchanted with it. Voters express growing doubts about the effectiveness of government. It has not cost the two main parties many seats, th昂首皱怎样去除anks to the electoral system, but their vote-share has fallen by 20 重生之二世祖的清闲日子percentage points since the 1980s. Politicians, conscious of voters’ disgruntlement, have also become increasingly febrile. Th孙膑,开封气候预报15天,桂鱼的做法-迈向2010,国际杯年份,咱们为足球喝彩ey are constantly turfing out prime ministers, in the hope that a new face will boost their party’s standing with the electorate. Some in the ruling Liberal Party, although not the current prime minister, have begun to call for a reduction in immigration, undermining decades of consensus. Ambitious reforms have become rare. The rest of the world 孙膑,开封气候预报15天,桂鱼的做法-迈向2010,国际杯年份,咱们为足球喝彩could learn a lot from Australia—and Australians could do with a refresher course, too.

不过,挖苦的是,虽然种种方针作用之“好”清楚明了,澳大利亚民众却逐渐开端幻灭。选民对政府能效的质疑声越来越大。还要幸亏推举准则,两大首要政党不必操心在议会里占一堆座位,不过自上世纪80年代以来,两党的议会支撑率下降了20%。政客对选民的不满却是心知肚明,变得越来越严重。他们不断替换辅弼,期望新面孔能帮助提高一下该党在选民中的位置。执政的自由党中,一些人分明还不是总理,却已开端操心呼吁削减移民,打破几十年来的一致。斗胆的变革早已屈指可数。当然,国际其他国家能够向澳大利亚学习的有许多,但——澳大利亚也需求再接再厉,更进一步。

译者:Aether

校正:雪/Rellia

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